The critical Battle of Ethandune at Edington.

The author – climbing Picquet Hill, just south of Edington

 

After Alfred left Athelney, he went via Egbert’s Stone and Iglea to Ethandune where he fought against the Vikings and won. The evidence suggests that after the Vikings had raided Chippenham Wessex had pretty much fallen into their hands. The events leading up to the Battle at Ethandune can therefore be viewed as a reconquest by Alfred for his Kingdom. If Alfred had lost he might not have been able to come back. The stakes were high.

The route taken from Athelney is contested, and I hope to blog on this at some point. It certainly takes up some space in the book!

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle tells us that this battle took place at Eþandune (þ is pronounced “th”), which we shall refer to as  Ethandune. It seems generally accepted that Ethandune is today’s Edington in Wiltshire. Although the identification of Ethandune is most helpful, it still does not allow us to determine the precise location of the battle in that area. My favoured location is the village itself, but because there is no proof we should explore other options. This was a critical battle, and Alfred’s victory led to his successful reconquest of Wessex.

 

Edington Priory

 

It has been suggested that Bratton Camp, which is on Bratton Down, had been the Viking base for the Battle of Ethandune. Standing at this iron-age hillfort one can appreciate how, coming from the direction of Chippenham to the north (where theseVikings appear to have had their base), once the climb up to Bratton Camp had been achieved then there was relatively easy access to Salisbury Plain, to meet the approaching Alfred and his armies, if indeed they had come that way.

 

The ramparts at Bratton Camp

 

East of Westbury, and just a short distance south-west of Edington, Bratton Camp is marked on maps and is easy to find, although it might be referred to as “White Horse.” There is indeed a figure of a white horse marked out on the hillside, sadly today made out of concrete.  I agree with another writer that it seems unusual that two important battles (the other being Ashdown) had been fought in areas with prominent white horses. However,  there is no evidence that a white horse would have been present at Bratton Down at or around Alfred’s time. Furthermore, the location of the Battle of Ashdown seems to me to have not been in the vicinity of the  white horse at Uffington in Oxfordshire. We need to avoid the unreliable practice of divining battle sites via horse-led inquiry.

 

The White Horse above Westbury

 

The parish of Edington extends a fair way south onto Salisbury plain, approximately level with, and just to the west of the deserted village of Imber. On some days the Ministry of Defence allows public access to Imber and some other parts of Salisbury Plain where access is restricted. I went on one of the special services run by Imberbus, where vintage buses  go from Warminster train station to permitted locations, including Imber and New Zealand Camp Farm. This was a delightful way of getting around. However, there is much of Salisbury Plain where there is never public access, including south of the village of Edington, and it is perhaps possible that the site of the battle may be beneath an  area where access is restricted owing to unexploded ordnance. The best I could do was to explore the roads and paths to the north of the perimeter of the training area. I include the following suggestion because it seemed most interesting and informative in terms of views, and is also within the Edington parish boundary. Just as you approach Edington coming from Bratton there is a lay-by on the right, with a footpath leading north. This fairly steep path takes you up Picquet Hill and over the top of Luccombe Bottom. As you ascend you will pass ancient tumuli and pillow mounds, and the view will open up in a way that allows one to start to understand the landscape of the potential battle site.

 

Looking north to Picquet Hill (on the right). Edington is down over the other side.

 

After their defeat at the battle of Ethandune it is recorded that the Vikings were pursued as far as their fortification. This is generally thought to be Chippenham, but at least one writer has suggested that it could have been Bratton Camp. I can see the temptation to consider Bratton camp as the Viking base, but the evidence for a base at Chippenham is stronger. Of course, Bratton Camp could have been an additional forward base for the battle, but so could have many other places been used as such and we seem to be potentially mis-led by the presence of a hill-fort, a horse, and the good visibility. There is also the matter of maintaining provisions for troops and animals at an elevated position away from water.

 

A stone and plaque at Bratton Camp reminding us that the Battle of Ethandune (Edington) had taken place in the vicinity.

 

It has been claimed that that the battle took place at Edington in Somerset. I examine this in my book and find that this is not likely.

Please visit the site for the book.

 

 

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